Zimbabwean Culture


The primary author of this profile was Nina Evason (2017).


  • Another Travel.com. (2016). Zimbabwe culture, customs and etiquette. Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://www.anothertravel.com/zimbabwe-culture/
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Census 2016, Country of Birth of Person by Sex (SA2+) [Data set]. http://stat.data.abs.gov.au/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=ABS_C16_T06_SA.
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). The World Factbook: Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/zi.html.
  • Chirozva, C., Plaxedes, C., & Mukamuri, B. (2006). The Traditional African Family in the Age of Globalisation: Literature Review Report for Centre for Rural Development a Barefoot Education for Afrika Trust (BEAT) partner. Retrieved from http://beatafrica.org/comm.pdf
  • Chisango, T., & Mayekiso, T. (2013). An investigation of the sexist application of the morality concept of Tsika in the Shona culture of Zimbabwe. International Journal of Psychology, 48(6), 1237-1245. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/doi/10.1080/00207594.2013.766745/full.
  • Cloud 9 Living. (2017). Never Say ‘No’: Zimbabwe Gift Giving Etiquette 101. Retrieved from http://www.cloud9living.com/blog/never-say-no-zimbabwe-gift-giving-etiquette-101/
  • Culture Crossing. (2017). Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student_details.php?Id=29&CID=232
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2018). Zimbabwe-born Community Information Summary. Retrieved from https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/mca/files/2016-cis-zimbabwe.PDF 
  • Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2015). Community Information Summary: Zimbabwe-born. Retrieved from https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/02_2014/zimbabwe.pdf
  • Embassy of Zimbabwe. (2007). Arts, Sports, Culture. Retrieved from http://www.zimembassy.se/culture.html
  • Gale, T. (2007). Cultural Policy of Zimbabwe. Harare: Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture. Retrieved from http://www.artsinafrica.com/uploads/2011/06/CULTURAL_POLICY_OF_ZIMBABWE_2007.pdf
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2014). Cultural Information - Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/cil-cai/country_insights-apercus_pays/ci-ic_zw.aspx?lang=eng
  • Grainger, K. (2011). Indirectness in Zimbabwean English: A Study of Intercultural Communication in the UK ( Across Cultures: 171-193). United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hodges, E. (2014). Language; Verbal, Non-Verbal, Customs and Etiquette. Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://zimbabwesc.weebly.com/blog/language-verbal-non-verbal-customs-and-etiquette
  • Ingham, K., Sanger, C. W., & Bradley, K. (2017). Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Zimbabwe.
  • Jenkins, O. B., & Hooten, L. D. (2008). People Profile: The Shangaan (Tsonga) People of Southeastern Africa. Retrieved from http://strategyleader.org/profiles/shangaan.html 
  • Khalidi, S., McIlroy, F., & Neumayer, H. (2012). The Cultural Dictionary and Directory. Canberra: Migrant and Refugee Settlement Services of the ACT Inc.
  • Kristine. (2009). Zimbabwe Business Etiquette. Retrieved from http://cscbrightminds2009.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/zimbabwe-business-etiquette-greeting.html
  • McGuigan, B. (2003). Culture & People in Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://traveltips.usatoday.com/culture-people-zimbabwe-16294.html
  • Meekers, D. (1993). The Noble Custom of Roora: The Marriage Practices of the Shona of Zimbabwe. Ethnology, 23(1), 35-54. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/stable/pdf/3773544.pdf
  • Monda, T. (2016). Dynamics of culture in Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://www.thepatriot.co.zw/old_posts/dynamics-of-culture-in-zimbabwe/
  • Murray, P. (2016). Zimbabwe. Bradt Travel Guides.
  • Muzorewa, G. H. (2006). Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zimbabwe
  • Ndlovu-Bhebhe, S. (2012). Harmonise Zimbabwe’s marriage laws before changing marriage certificates. BUWA! A Journal on African Women's Experiences, 15-17. Retrieved from http://www.osisa.org/sites/default/files/15-17.pdf
  • Owomoyela, O. (2002). Culture and Customs of Zimbabwe. Westport, Connecticut:  Greenwood Press. Retrieved from http://shcas.shnu.edu.cn/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=aTCBlsEx1DQ%3D&tabid=12805&mid=31237&language=zh-CN
  • Peel, T. (2017). Zimbabwe Traditions. Retrieved from http://www.victoriafalls-guide.net/zimbabwe-traditions.html
  • Tirosh, O. (2021). Languages of Zimbabwe: A Journey of Discovery into Languages in Zimbabwe. Retrieved from https://www.tomedes.com/translator-hub/zimbabwe-languages
  • Transparency International. (2018). Corruption Perceptions Index 2017. Retrieved from https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2017
  • Tripadvisor. (2017). Zimbabwe: Tipping and Etiquette. Retrieved from https://www.tripadvisor.com/Travel-g293759-s606/Zimbabwe:Tipping.And.Etiquette.html
  • Tshuma, L. (2012). Is technology a friend or foe to traditional practices?. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.co.zw/is-technology-a-friend-or-foe-to-traditional-practices/
  • Voices of Africa. (2015). Culture, patriarchy and the Shona woman’s curtsey. Retrieved from http://voicesofafrica.co.za/culture--and-the-shona-womans-curtsey/
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2015). Education: Literacy Rate. Retrieved from http://data.uis.unesco.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=EDULIT_DS&popupcustomise=true&lang=en#

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