Venezuelan Culture


The primary authors of this profile were Imogen Purcell and Nina Evason (2019).


  • Aaron. (2011). Spanish Naming Conventions - Part 1: The Basics. Retrieved from
  • Al Jazeera. (2013). Timeline: Venezuela’s tumultuous history. Retrieved from
  • Al Jazeera News. (2018). Venezuela’s crisis explained from the beginning. Retrieved from
  • Arana, M. (2013). Latin America’s Go-To Hero. Retrieved from
  • Arsenault, C. (2013). ‘Class war’ polarises Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Associated Press. (2015). Venezuela Seeks to Crack Down on Odd Baby Names. Retrieved from
  • Baguley, K. (2005). Culture Shock! Venezuela. Portland, USA: Graphic Arts Center Publishing.
  • BBC. (2018). Venezuela crisis: Why has 7% of the population fled the country? Retrived from
  • Balch, O. (2013). Buen vivir: the social philosophy inspiring movements in South America. Retrieved from
  • Caicedo, S. (2017). Venezuelans being denied Australian visas due to the country's 'volatile situation'. Retrieved from
  • Caraballo-Arias, Y., Madrid, J. & Barrios, M. (2018). Working in Venezuela: How the Crisis has Affected the Labor Conditions. Annals of Global Health 84(3): 512-522.
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The World Factbook: Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Chain, A. (2018). The Top 10 Festivals in Venezuela. Retrieved from 
  • Commisceo Global. (2017). Venezuela Guide. Retrieved from
  • Communicaid. (2018). Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Council on Foreign Relations. (2018). Political Crisis in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Davies, R. (2011). The cult of Maria Lionza. Retrieved from
  • Debenham, L. (2013). A Guide to Etiquette in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2017). Venezuela Country Brief. Retrieved from
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2013). People of Australia 2013 Statistics. Retrieved from
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2018). Venezuela-born: Community Information Summary. Retrieved from
  • Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2014). Community Information Summary: Venezuela-born. Retrieved from
  • eDiplomat. (2016). Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Emerson, R. G. (2011). A Bolivarian People: Identity politics in Hugo Chávez’s Venezuela. Humanities Research 18(1): 87-107. Retrieved from
  • Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Arawak. Retrieved from
  • Encyclopedia Britannica. (2011). Chibcha. Retrieved from
  • Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Carib. Retrieved from
  • Foreign Correspondent. (2017). Venezuela Undercover. Retrieved from
  • Freier, F. (2018). Maduro's Immorality and the Role of the Church in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Froehle, B. (1997). Pentecostals and Evangelicals in Venezuela: Consolidating Gains, Moving in New Directions. In E. L. Cleary and H. W. Stewart-Gambino (Eds.), Power, Politics,and Pentecostals in Latin America (pp. 201-225). Colorado, USA: Westview Press.
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2018). Venezuela - Cultural Information. Retrieved from
  • Gudynas, E. (2011). Buen Vivir: Today’s tomorrow. Development 54(4): 441-447.
  • Gutierrez, A. (2015). What’s the deal with santería and espiritismo?. Retrieved form
  • Haggerty, R. A. (1990). Venezuela: A Country Study. Retrieved from
  • Hawkins, K. (2003). Populism in Venezuela: The Rise of Chavismo. Third World Quarterly 24(6): 1137-1160.
  • Hofstede Insights. (2018). Country Comparison: Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Human Rights Watch. (2019). Venezuela: Events of 2018. Retrieved from
  • IMA. (2018). Doing Business in Venezuela. Retrieved from,-language-culture/
  • Jamal, U. (2017). The Chavista Who Toppled Columbus: Venezuela's Fight Against Colonialism. Retrieved from
  • Katz, L. (2017). Negotiating International Business - Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Labrador, R. C. (2019). Venezuela: The Rise and Fall of a Petrostate. Retrieved from
  • Lander, E. (2005). Venezuelan Social Conflict in a Global Context. Retrieved from:
  • Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (2005). Country Profile: Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Lieuwen, E., Martz, J. D., Heckel, H. D. and McCoy, J. L. (2019). Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Lonely Planet. (2018). Public Holidays. Retrieved from
  • Lonely Planet. (2019). Destination Today. Retrieved from 
  • Marsh, H. (2017). Venezuela’s long history of racism is coming back to haunt it. Retrieved from
  • Masur, G. S. (2018). Simon Bolivar. Retrieved from
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2017a). World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples: Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2017b). World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples: Yanomami. Retrieved from
  • Multicultural South Australia. (2014). Venezuela: A Profile Venezuela-born South Australians. Retrieved from
  • Murphy, J. (2019). Santería. Retrieved from
  • National Statistics Institute of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. (2014). National Census of Population and Housing: National Total Results of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela General Management of Demographic Statistics Population and Housing Census Management. Retrieved from
  • Nichols, M. (2019). Venezuelans facing ‘unprecedented challenges,’ many need aid - internal U.N. report. Retrieved from 
  • Office Holidays. (2018). Public holidays in Venezuela in 2018. Retrieved from
  • Office of Multicultural Affairs and Citizenship. (2013). Victorian Community Profiles: 2011 Census Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of-Born. Melbourne, Victoria: State of Victoria. Retrieved form
  • Oliver, J. (2018). Venezuela’s Mounting Refugee Crisis. Retrieved from
  • OPEC. (2018). OPEC share of world crude oil reserves 2017. Retrieved from
  • Padgett, T. (2010). Why Venezuela's Chávez Dug Up Bolívar's Bones. Retrieved from,8599,2004526,00.html
  • Page, T. L. (2015). “Race, Ethnicity, and Politics in Venezuela”. In Sáenz, R et al. (eds.), The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity, International Handbooks of Population 4, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Paullier, J. (2011). Venezuela, spiritualism and santería. Retrieved from
  • Pestano, A. V. (2017). Venezuela: 75% of population lost 19 pounds amid crisis. Retrieved from 
  • Pew Research Center. (2014). Religion in Latin America. Retrieved from
  • Price, M. D. (1996). The Venezuelan Andes and the Geographical Imagination. Geographical Review 83(3): 334-355. Retrieved from
  • ProQuest. (2017). Culture Gram: Venezuela. Michigan: ProQuest.
  • Reuters. (2011). Factbox: Venezuela's indigenous groups and their struggles. Retrieved from
  • Romero, S. (2007). A Culture of Naming That Even a Law May Not Tame. Retrieved from
  • Romero, S. (2007). What's in a name? In Venezuela, just about anything - Americas - International Herald Tribune. Retrieved from
  • Sáenz, R., Embrick, D. G. and Rodríguez N. P. (2015). The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity. Netherlands: Springer.
  • Sarafi the Globe. (2013). Relationships, Marriage, & family Life in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Smilde, D. (2018). The Catholic Church and the Venezuela Crisis, 20 Years On. Retrieved from
  • Study Country. (2018). Religious Beliefs and Spirituality in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • Telles, E and Bailey, S. (2013). Understanding Latin American Beliefs about Racial Inequality, American Journal of Sociology 118(6): 1559-1595.
  • The World Bank. (2018). The World Bank in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • The World Travel Guide. (2014). Venezuela History, Language and Culture. Retrieved from
  • U.S. Department of State. (2007). Venezuela: International Religious Freedom Report 2007. Retrieved from
  • UNHCR. (2019). Regional RMRP for Refugees and Migrants from Venezuela January - December 2019. Retrieved from 
  • UN Stats. (2011). Marriages and crude marriage rates, by urban/rural residence: 2007 - 2011. Retrieved from
  • Wilpert, G. (2004). Racism and Racial Divides in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • World Atlas. (2018). Ethnic Groups in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • World Atlas. (2018). Religious Beliefs in Venezuela. Retrieved from
  • World Atlas. (2018). What Languages Are Spoken in Venezuela? Retrieved from

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