Tongan Culture


The primary author of this profile was Chara Scroope (2018).


  • Advameg. (2016). Tonga. Countries and their Cultures. Retrieved from
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Census 2016, Country of Birth of Person by Sex (SA2+) [Data set].
  • Bennett, S. N., Plant, H., & Boekweg, M. (2017). Tongan Culture. Retrieved from
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2020). The World Factbook: Tonga. Retrieved from 
  • Culture Crossing Guide. (2014). Tonga. Retrieved from
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2018). Tonga Country Brief.
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2019). Tonga-born: Community Information Summary. Retrieved from
  • Goodman, M. A. (2008). Church Growth in Tonga: Historical and Cultural Connections. Retrieved from
  • Grace, G. (2003). Visit the Free Wesleyan Church in Tonga. Retrieved from
  • Kaeppler, A. L. (1971). Rank in Tonga. Ethnology. 10(2), 174-194.
  • Khalidi, S., McIlroy, F., & Neumayer, H. (2012). The Cultural Dictionary and Directory. Canberra: Migrant and Refugee Settlement Services of the ACT Inc.
  • Latukefu, S., & Foster, S. (2018). Tonga. Retrieved from
  • Lift Education. (2010). Faufaua!: An Introduction to Tongan: Teachers’ Guide and Support Materials. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
  • State of Queensland (Metro South Health). (2015). Food and cultural practices of the Tongan community in Australia. Retrieved from
  • Migration Policy Institute. (2011). Remittances Profile: Tonga. Washington: Migration Policy Institute.
  • Morton, H. (1998). Creating their own culture: Tongans. The Contemporary Pacific, 10(1), 1-30.
  • Museum Victoria Australia. (n.d.). History of immigration from Tonga. Retrieved from
  • ProQuest. (2017). Culture Gram: Tonga. Michigan: ProQuest.
  • Safari the Globe. (2014). Tonga. Retrieved from
  • Sperry, K. (2008). Oral Genealogies in the Pacific Islands. Retrieved from
  • Statistics Department Tonga. (2013). Tonga 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Tonga: Tonga Department of Statistics.
  • Taungapeau, M. (2014). Ko e Kai ia ‘a e Tonga. Retrieved from
  • Tongaadmin. (2014). Opening a business and business etiquette in Tonga. Retrieved from

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