South Sudanese Culture

South Sudanese in Australia

According to the 2011 census, the majority of the South Sudan-born population in Australia migrated between 2001 and 2006 (72.4%). Most arrived from Egypt, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia after living in refugee camps in these countries, having fled drought, famine and war in South Sudan. Local community leaders have worked hard to leave divisive tribal politics behind, meaning that the South Sudanese communities are generally very supportive of one another and united. 

South Sudanese refugees often face particularly difficult settlement challenges that many other migrant groups do not encounter. Some may have had no employment history in skilled jobs outside of agriculture, and may also be illiterate. This being said, individual education and skill levels vary depending on many people’s experiences of displacement. For example, some may have had the opportunity to learn how to write and speak English whilst in a transit country. Furthermore, families can also struggle to adjust to the social structure of Australia as many norms challenge traditional family roles (see the Family section for more information).


The South Sudanese communities are also often the target of intolerance and hostility in Australia. Media reporting commonly portrays them as ‘bad refugees’ for the struggles they face acculturating into society and the actions of a small minority (Refugee Council of Australia, 2016). This has led to a low level of trust among the community that can be particularly hard for adolescents. They are often discriminated against in housing, employment and educational opportunities. According to a 2015 report, 77% of South Sudanese respondents had experienced discrimination in the past 12 months – often in contact with authority figures, finding accommodation and employment (Markus, 2015).


Some South Sudanese have described adapting to Australia as ‘walking the line’ whereby they have to navigate an unclear path, continuously struggling to gauge the expectations held of them in Australian culture whilst trying to maintain their customs and values (Marlowe, 2012). For some, the pressure of having an institutional power (i.e. the government) supervising their difficult process of acculturation is particularly challenging due to previous experiences of government domination and preferred community autonomy (see ‘History of Conflict’ and ‘Community Interdependence and Privacy’ in Core Concepts). Some report feeling interrogated by Australian culture and systems. Only 26% of South Sudanese people report trust in the Australian Police Force (Fitton, 2016).


Nevertheless, despite any perceived discrimination, the majority of South Sudanese migrants report satisfaction with their lives in Australia (Markus, 2015). The vast majority speak English well or very well. Most have also sought to educate themselves if they had not received a formal education already. It is common for people to seek training to fill professions that had an undersupply in South Sudan, such as doctors, lawyers and political scientists. For many, the suffering of their people and country has motivated them to make positive contributions to their community.

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South Sudan
  • Population
    [July 2017 est.]
  • Language
    English (official)
    Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants)
    Many regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande and Shilluk
  • Religion
    Christian (majority)
    Note: Demographics unavailable.
  • Ethnicity
    Dinka (35.8%)
    Nuer (15.6%)
    Others including Shilluk, Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit
    [2011 est]
    Note: Demographics and statistics on the ethnic make-up of South Sudan are rough estimates.
  • Australians with South Sudanese Ancestry
    13,059 [Census, 2016]
South Sudanese in Australia
  • Population
    [Census, 2016]
    This figure refers to the number of Australian residents that were born in South Sudan. However, this census data does not accurately reflect true community affiliations. As the majority of people who identify as South Sudanese were technically born in the Republic of Sudan before the division of the two countries, many list “Sudan” as their birthplace and consequently get categorised as North Sudanese. However, community leaders estimate that there are more than 20,000 South Sudanese people in Australia.
  • Median Age
    [Census, 2016]
  • Gender
    Male (53.1%)
    Female (46.8%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Religion
    Catholic Christianity (38.9%)
    Anglican Christianity (32.1%)
    Christianity [not defined] (5.9%)
    Presbyterian and Reformed Christianity (5.9%)
    Other Religion (11.5%)
    No Religion (2.3%)
    Not Stated (3.0%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Ancestry
    South Sudanese (49.8%)
    Sudanese (16.7%)
    African [so described] (12.8%)
    Dinka (6.4%)
    Other Ancestry (14.3%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Language Spoken at Home
    Dinka (50.7%)
    Arabic (20.3%)
    Nuer (7.3%)
    Bari (4.4%)
    Other Languages (16.3%)
    Of those who speak a language other than English at home, 84.4% speak English fluently.
    [Census, 2016]
  • Diaspora
    Victoria (35.7%)
    Queensland (18.6%)
    Western Australia (15.6%)
    New South Wales (12.7%)
    Other (7.4%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Arrival to Australia
    Prior to 2007 (70.6%)
    2007 - 2011 (18.0%)
    2012 - 2016 (9.1%)
    [Census, 2016]
Country Flag Country South Sudan