South African Culture

Core Concepts

  • Opportunism
  • Independence
  • Assertiveness
  • Cautious optimism
  • Entrepreneurism
  • Cultural sensitivity
  • Self-protection

South Africa is a country on the southernmost tip of the African continent, bordering Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Eswatini and Lesotho. The land was originally home to a broad diversity of African tribes and peoples with varying languages and customs. The period of the 17th century onwards introduced a sizeable European population of Dutch, English, French and German settlers (among others). There were many social consequences of , including clear demarcations of inequality throughout society. For example, the white Afrikaner and English minorities were politically, socially and economically privileged over the black, mixed- and Asian populations for years as part of the system. Today, the nation is endeavouring to overcome these divides; recognition of legal equality and fair distribution of resources is pushed to encourage unification. However, resentment and underlying post- attitudes have been hard to shake. South Africa remains socially divided across lines in many ways.

As South African society is deeply stratified, it is hard to describe cultural concepts from a national perspective. Instead, values and behaviours of the population differ strongly among the cultural groups to which people belong. To understand them, one must first look at these populations individually.*


* It should be noted that some take offence at referring to people by their or (particularly the term ‘black’) and prefer to label everyone as simply ‘South African’ or by their tribal affiliation. This is acknowledged. However, the South African census and statistical authority gathers data based on these distinctions to clearly differentiate between microcultural groups.

Black Population (79.2%)

Black South Africans are generally warm, patient, tolerant, creative and charismatic people. They also incredibly culturally diverse, consisting of populations from multiple tribal groups (for example, the Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Venda tribes). Members tend to see other tribes as very different to themselves and feel unaffiliated with them despite being of the same . Each tribe has traditional belief systems, languages and cultural practices unique to them that trace back in history. Tribes tend to provide most black South Africans with their truest form of self-identity. For example, people might acknowledge that they are South African, but recognise themselves as primarily Zulu. 

Despite being the majority, there is a significant disparity between the wealth and opportunity available to the average black South African compared to other groups. However, the new post- civil landscape of South Africa has seen the black population urbanise and educate faster than others. The number of black South Africans in the middle class and occupying high positions in society and government is increasing exponentially.

White Population (8.9%)

The white population of South Africa mainly includes two groups: the Afrikaners and the English-speakers. The Afrikaners are descendants of Dutch, French and German settlers who speak a Germanic language, Afrikaans. Their mannerisms resemble Dutch/German communication styles, which are quite . Communication is functionally-purposed, with people speaking honestly and clearly to arrive straight to the point. 

The English-speakers come from British ancestry and have a more reserved approach, reflecting British communication styles. For example, they generally use conditional phrases to make their point in a more way. However, English-speaking South Africans tend to be more outspoken and abrupt in their speech than other British groups (e.g. Canadians or Australians) as an influence of South African culture.

Asian Population (2.5%)

The Asian population is primarily made up of the descendants of Indians who were transported to South Africa as indentured workers in the early days of . The population also includes descendants of Chinese and Malay immigrants from later centuries. Though South African influences are visible in this population’s behaviour and beliefs, distinctive Asian values such as (respect for elders) are still displayed. Furthermore, they have strongly maintained their original religious affiliations. 

Though they are a minority, the Asian population has achieved a high level of prosperity in modern-day South Africa. Their rise to the upper class and success in business have distinguished them as being a very industrious and responsible segment of South African society. Furthermore, as Asians were historically enslaved in South Africa, they often consider themselves to be exempt from blame for the many issues in South African society and take pride in their hard-won achievements. Asian South Africans often value , visibly displaying their wealth in possessions such as luxury cars.

Mixed Race Population (8.9%)

The mixed- population consists of people from a variety of different heritages. Their lineage is often a combination of European, Afrikaans, Asian and native African ancestries. They usually speak Afrikaans or English. As they identify as neither white nor black, this more indistinct is often neglected and left out of assistance strategies that aim to target the larger majority of the poverty-stricken population (black South Africans). This has resulted in their further marginalisation.

South African Society
As a result of previous law that required the classification of , most South Africans identify themselves as fitting into one of the ‘categories’ above and are particularly conscious of the ancestral and characteristic differences between them. There is also a shrewd understanding of each population’s role in the progress (and/or regression) of South Africa. This acute awareness of their turbulent past and the present social climate has instilled South Africans with heightened sensitivity. However, this awareness is also informed by memories  of oppression and lingering resentment.

South African history has been saturated in racism. Yet, as the country develops, bigotry is slowly diminishing and losing political traction. With unemployment and poverty rampant in some communities, economic position is now the dominant cause of segregation. Unfortunately, wealth and opportunities have been distributed very unequally among populations due to the prejudices that prevailed during settler . As such, societal stratification still largely correlates with . For example, the Pew Research Centre estimates that the average income of a white household is six times more than that of a black household.

Clearly, there are large , economic and contextual differences among South Africans, yet there are characteristics that are fairly common throughout the country. South Africans are not so divided that they don’t share cultural conceptions of time, space and etiquette. Broader African culture has influenced most South Africans to be quite distinct in their communication style and approach. People of all often strike Australians as markedly assertive in their speech, and perhaps quite charismatic. For example, Afrikaans people commonly have a noticeably unreserved demeanour in comparison to their Dutch and German heritage. 

South Africans also share an adventurous, entrepreneurial streak that frequently sees them be opportunistic and open to taking risks. One gets the sense that it is important to them that they make something of themselves and their time. Accordingly, hard work and cooperation are highly valued. They are often quite driven people, realistic and pragmatic in their rationalisations. The country’s social turbulence fuels an ambition to be economically independent, self-sustainable and competent in order to escape the crippling condition of unemployment. However, this motivation is now coupled with an emerging and cautious optimism that such an aspiration is achievable in the post- era. 

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