Somali Culture


The primary author of this profile was Nina Evason (2019).


  • Abdullahi, M. D. (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. (N.A.: Greenwood Publishing Group).
  • Advameg, Inc. (2018). Somalia. Retrieved from
  • Al Jazeera. (2016). Somalia: The Forgotten Story. Retrieved from
  • AMISOM Somalia. (2018). Documentary: AMISOM's 10 Year journey in Somalia. Retrieved from 
  • (2018). Somali culture, customs and etiquette. Retrieved from
  • Asylum Research Consultancy. (2018). Situation in South and Central Somalia (including Mogadishu). Retrieved from,0,213
  • Barnes, C. (2006). U dhashay—Ku dhashay: Genealogical and Territorial Discourse in Somali History. Social Identities, 12(4), 487–498.
  • BBC. (2018). Somalia profile – Timeline. Retrieved from
  • Bokore, N. (2013). Suffering in silence: a Canadian-Somali case study. Journal of Social Work Practice, 27(1), 95–113.     
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The World Factbook: Somalia. Retrieved from 
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2017). DFAT Country Information Report Somalia. Retrieved from 
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2017). Australia’s offshore Humanitarian Program: 2016–17. Retrieved from
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2019). Somalia-born: Community Information Summary. Retrieved from
  • Elmi, A. A. (2016). Developing an Inclusive Citizenship in Somalia: Challenges and Opportunities. Bildhaan 16(7), 6-20.
  • Filio, D., Essen, B., Suominen, S. & El Ansari, W. (2011). Communication and Cultural Issues in Providing Reproductive Health Care to Immigrant Women: Health Care Providers’ Experiences in Meeting Somali Women Living in Finland. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 14, 330-343.
  • Girls Not Brides. (2019). Somalia. Retrieved from 
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2018). Somalia: Cultural Information. Retrieved from
  • Gundel, J. (2009). Clans of Somalia. Retrieved from
  • The Heritage Foundation. (2018). 2018 Index of Economic Freedom: Somalia. Retrieved from
  • Ismail, Y. (2018). Somalia’s Clan Politics. Retrieved form
  • Leite, N. (2017). Reinvigoration of Somali Traditional Justice through Inclusive Conflict Resolution Approaches. Retrieved from
  • Lewis, I. M. (2004). Visible and Invisible Differences: The Somali Paradox. Africa: The Journal of the International African Institute, 74(4), 489–515.
  • Lewis, T. (2009). Somali Cultural Profile. Retrieved from
  • Macha, N. (2016). ‘We’ll make our country great again’: project shows true face of Somalis. Retrieved from
  • Makina, A. (2011). The Impact of Globalisation on Somali Culture. Retrieved from
  • Marchal, R. (2010). The Puntland State of Somalia. A Tentative Social Analysis. Retrieved from
  • Mark Bradbury & Sally Healy. (2010). Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiative. Whose peace is to anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking. (London, UK: Conciliation Resources). Retrieved from 
  • Metro South Health. (2015). Food and cultural practices of the Somali community in Australia – a community resource. Retrieved from
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2019). World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples: Somalia. Retrieved from
  • Moret, J., Baglioni, S. & Efionayi- Mäder, D. (2006). The Path of Somali Refugees into Exile: A Comparative Analysis of Secondary Movements and Policy Responses. Retrieved from
  • Museum Victoria Australia. (2013). History of Immigration from Somalia. Retrieved from
  • Omar, Y., Kuay, J., Tuncer, C., Wriedt, K., & Minas, H. (2015). Emotional wellbeing and access to culturally appropriate services: A comparative study of Muslim men of refugee background from the Horn of Africa, living in the inner-northern suburbs of Melbourne. Melbourne: Victorian Transcultural Mental Health.
  • Omar, Y. S. (2016). Identity and Sense of Belonging of Young Somali Men in a Western Context: Case Studies from Melbourne and Minneapolis. Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies, 16(11), 65-79.
  •  Osman, A. A. (2010). Order out of Chaos. Retrieved from
  • PBS. (2011). The Ghost City: Inside Mogadishu, Somalia. Retrieved from
  • Proquest. (2017). Culture Gram: Somalia. Michigan: ProQuest.
  • Putman, D. B. & Noor, M. C. (1993). Department of Language Services Cultural Handbook: Refugee Fact Sheet NO. 9. Retrieved from
  • Rawlinson, C. (2016). Paths to Peace: How Melbourne's largest Somali community is responding to radicalisation. Retrieved from
  • Scholl, J. J. (2015). Providing Culturally Appropriate Physical Therapy to Somali Refugees in Minnesota. Retrieved from
  • Social Development . (2017). Somali Women’s Political Participation and Leadership – Evidence and Opportunities. Retrieved from.
  • Taylor, K. & Williams, V. (2017). Etiquette and Taboos around the World: A Geographic Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Customs. (Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press).  
  • UN Development Programme. (2000). Globalisation and its impact on Somalia. Retrieved from
  • UNHCR. (2016). Culture, context and mental health of Somali refugees. Retrieved from 
  • UNICEF. (N.A.) Women’s situation in Somalia. Retrieved form
  • United Kingdom Government. (2006). A Guide to Names and Naming Practices. Retrieved from
  • U.S. Department of State. (2016). Somalia 2016 International Religious Freedom Report. Retrieved from 
  • Waters, L. (2017). 'This is a lawless place': Australia's Somali community expresses concern for relatives in Libya. Retrieved from 
  • World Vision. (2018). Forced to Flee: Top Countries refugees are coming from. Retrieved from 

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