References and Further Readings

Primary Author
Chara Scroope,

The primary author of this profile was Chara Scroope (2022).


  • Abu-Rabi, I. M. (ed.) (2006). The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Cook, D. (2015). Understanding Jihad. (2nd ed.). Oakland: University of California Press.
  • El Fadl, K. A. (2013). The Shari’ah. In J. L. Esposito & E. E. Shahin (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Esposito, J. L. (ed.). (2003). Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Esposito, J. L., & Shahin, E. E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gerhar, B. (ed.) (2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Haider, N. (2014). Shī’ī Islam: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Harvard University. (2015). Islam. Harvard: Harvard University. Retrieved from
  • Juergensmeyer, M. (ed.) (2006). The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mahdi, M. S., Rahman, F., & Schimmel, A. (2018). Islam. Retrieved from
  • Pew Forum. (2016). Global Religious Futures Project: Muslims. Retrieved from
  • Qureshi, R. (2006). Islam and Music. In G. L. Beck (ed.) Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
  • Rippin, A. (ed.) (2006). The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’ān. Blackwell Publishing
  • Salvatore, A., Tottoli, R., & Rahimi, B. (eds.) (2018). The Wiley Blackwell History of Islam. Newark: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Schweiker, W. (ed.) (2005). The Blackwell Companion to Religious Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Smart, N. (1996). Dimensions of the Sacred: An Anatomy of the World’s Beliefs. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • (n.d.). The Hadith of the Prophet. Retrieved from
  • Waines, D. (2016). Islam. In H. Kawanami, C. Partridge, & L. Woodhead (eds). Religions in the Modern World (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.


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