Malaysian Culture


The primary author of this profile was Nina Evason (2016), with the Religion section authored by Chara Scroope (2020) and the Naming section authored by Nina Evason (2021).


  • Advameg. (n.d.). Malaysia. Countries and their Cultures. Retrieved from
  • Anthropology and the Human Condition. (2011). Malay-Muslim Naming Conventions. Retrieved from 
  • Asian Studies Center. (2011). Malaysia - Religion. Windows on Asia. Retrieved from
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Census 2016, Country of Birth of Person by Sex (SA2+) [Data set].
  • BBC. (2013). Malaysia court rules non-Muslims cannot use ‘Allah’. Retrieved from
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2017). The World Factbook: Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • COMMISCEO Global. (2016). Malaysia Guide. Retrieved from
  • Communicaid. (2009). Doing Business in Malaysia: Malaysian Social and Business Culture. Retrieved from
  • Constitution of Malaysia. Article 160, Section 2. Retrieved from
  • Dalat. (2004). Malaysian Culture and Customs. Retrieved from
  • Davidson, L. (2019). Naming Conventions on the Malay Peninsula. Retrieved from 
  • Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2015). Community Information Summary: Malaysia-born. Retrieved from
  • Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2016). Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2014 – 2016. Retrieved from
  • Dresser, N. (1996). Multicultural Manners. New York: Wiley & Sons.
  • eDiplomat. (2016). Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • Gabriel, S. P. (2014).  ‘After the break’: re-conceptualising ethnicity, national identity and ‘Malaysian-Chinese’ identities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(7), 1211-1224.
  • Geert Hofstede. (2016). Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • Geni. (2021). Naming Conventions for Malay Profile. Retrieved from 
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2014). Cultural Information - Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • Harun, Y. (2009). Malay Family Values. Retrieved from
  • Hassan, M. K., & Bin Basri, G. (Eds.). (2007). Encyclopedia of Malaysia Volume 10: Religions and Beliefs. Editions Didier Millet. Retrieved from
  • Husin, W. N. W. (2011) Budi-Islam; It’s Role in the Construction of Malay Identity in Malaysia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(12), 132-142.
  • Just Landed. (n.d.). Business etiquette: Doing business in Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • Khalidi, S., McIlroy, F., & Neumayer, H. (2012). The Cultural Dictionary and Directory. Canberra: Migrant and Refugee Settlement Services of the ACT Inc.
  • Koh, S. Y. (2015). How and Why Race Matters: Malaysian-Chinese Transnational Migrants Interpreting and practising Bumiputera-differentiated Citizenship. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 41(3), 531-550.
  • Lewis, R. D. (2006). When Cultures Collide. Boston: Nicholas Brealey International.
  • Lockard, C. A., Bin Ahmad, Z., Bee, O. J., & Leinbach, T. R. (2020). Malaysia. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from
  • Malaxi. (n.d.). Kuala Lumper Etiquette. Retrieved from
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2019). FAQs. Retrieved from 
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2018). Malaysia. Retrieved from
  • ProQuest. (2017). Culture Gram: Malaysia. Michigan: ProQuest.
  • Ramli, R. (2013). Culturally appropriate communication in Malaysia: budi bahasa as warranty component in Malaysian discourse. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 8(1), 65-78.
  • Richardson, C., Yaaper, M. S. & Amir, S. (2016). Budi and Malay workplace ethics. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 10(1), 78-92.
  • Robustova, V. V. (2016). Anthroponymic system of Malaysia: Name popularity and culture shift. Onoma, 51: 207–221. Retrieved from 
  • Transparency International. (2017). Corruption Perceptions Index 2016. Retrieved from
  • United Kingdom Government. (2006). A Guide to Names and Naming Practices. Retrieved from
  • Vickers, A. (2003). ‘Malay Identity’: Modernity, Invented Tradition, and Forms of Knowledge. In T. P. Barnard (Ed.), Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity Across Boundaries (pp. 25-55). Singapore: Singapore University Press. Retrieved from

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