Malaysian Culture


Naming conventions generally differ depending on a Malaysian’s ethnicity, indicating whether a person is Malay, Indian or Chinese-Malaysian.



  • A Malay’s name is usually structured as their first name followed by a patronym (bin/binte/binti) followed by their father’s first name. For example, a girl named ‘Aisyah’ whose father is named ‘Musa’ will be ‘Aisyah binte Musa’. A female’s name does not change at marriage.
  • A title of ‘Haji’ or ‘Hajjah’ indicates the person has made their pilgrimage to Mecca. ‘Sayyed’ or ‘Sharifah’ shows that the person is considered to have descended from the prophet Mohammed.



  • Chinese-Malaysians usually follow Chinese naming conventions, whereby the surname comes before one or two given names (e.g. WANG Zhifu Ping). 
  • The surname is usually one syllable, and the given names may contain one or two syllables each.
  • Chinese women do not change their names when they marry, but children are given their father's name.
  • Chinese names are often hard for Westerners to pronounce as the tones of Cantonese and Mandarin are very specific. Upon moving to Australia, the Chinese-Malaysians may take this into consideration (along with the pressure to conform to Western standards) and commonly adopt a Westernised first name. They may keep one of their original first names as a middle name, but essentially adopt a new name and format it in the Western way: [Westernised first name] [Chinese first name/middle name] [surname] (e.g. James Zhifu WANG). This new name is only used in Western and international contexts; they revert to their original name when returning to Malaysia. However, first-generation migrants living in Australia usually give their Australia-born child a Western name instead of a Chinese one.



  • Indian-Malaysians usually follow Indian naming conventions.
  • Many Indian names do not include a surname. The initial of the father’s name is placed before their first name (e.g. N. Kumar). When addressed formally, the name is written as ‘s/o N. Kumar’. ‘S/o’ means ‘son of’, while ‘d/o’ is used for females and means ‘daughter of’.
  • Sometimes when women marry, they omit their father’s initial and adopt their husband’s first name as their surname (e.g. Nita KUMAR). However, it is also common for women to adopt their husband’s family name (e.g. Nita VASANI).
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  • Population
    [July 2016 est.]
  • Language
    Bahasa Malaysian [official]
    Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow)
    Other indigenous languages
  • Religion
    Islam [official] (61.3%)
    Buddhism (19.8%)
    Christianity (9.2%)
    Hinduism (6.3%)
    Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions (1.3%)
    Other (0.4%)
    No Religion (0.7%)
    [Census, 2010]
  • Ethnicity
    Bumiputera [Malay (50.1%) & Orang Asli/indigenous (11.8%)] (61.5%)
    Chinese (22.6%)
    Indian (6.7%)
    Other (1%)
    Non-citizens (8.2%)
    [Census, 2010]
  • Cultural Dimensions
  • Australians with Malay Ancestry
    46,079 [Census, 2016]
Malaysians in Australia
  • Population
    [Census, 2016]
    This figure refers to the number of Australian residents that were born in Malaysia.
  • Median Age
    39 [Census, 2016]
  • Gender
    Males (46.0%)
    Females (54.0%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Religion
    Buddhism (24.1%)
    No Religion (21.1%)
    Catholic Christianity (12.7%)
    Islam (5.2%)
    Other Religion (32.3%)
    Not Stated (4.4%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Ancestry
    Chinese (62.3%)
    Malay (14.0%)
    Indian (6.0%)
    English (4.2%)
    Other (13.5%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Language Spoken at Home
    English (31.4%)
    Mandarin (30.1%)
    Cantonese (18.8%)
    Malay (7.2%)
    Other (12.0%)
    Of those who speak a language other than English at home, 90.5% speak English fluently.
    [Census, 2016]
  • Diaspora
    Victoria (36.2%)
    New South Wales (22.9%)
    Western Australia (21.1%)
    Queensland (10.7%)
    Other (9.1%)
    [Census, 2016]
  • Arrival
    Prior to 2007 (59.5%)
    2007 - 2011 (15.4%)
    2012 - 2016 (22.0%)
    [Census, 2016]
Country Flag Country Malaysia