Kenya is located in eastern Africa, bordering Somalia and Ethiopia in the north, Uganda and South Sudan to the west and Tanzania in the south. The country is situated directly on the equator and contains an abundant and diverse set of wildlife and landscapes. Kenya’s population is also ethnically diverse. Throughout Kenya's history, various African groups and sub- groups have interacted with one another. Kenya has also had interactions with various non-African countries and people. For instance, during the mid 18th century, Arabs ruled the Kenyan coast from the island of Zanzibar. Just under 200 years later, Kenya became a colony of Great Britain. The British introduced Christianity and brought people from India and other parts of the empire.
Kenya gained independence in 1963 after a period of violent revolts known as the Mau Mau Uprising (1953-1960). Although this was not a bloodless transition to independence, the Mau Mau Uprising was a more peaceful transition than a lot of other countries on the African continent experienced. The legacies of such historical events remain visible in contemporary Kenyan society. Today, there are at least 40 different Kenyan groups, along with Asian and European groups. Moreover, most of the country identifies as Christian (82.1%). Overall, Kenyans are generally warm and friendly and place a high value on their connections with their family, friends and community.
The population of Kenya is concentrated in the southern parts of the country, where most people live in rural towns and villages. Nearly three-quarters of the population (73.5%) reside in rural parts of the country. The type of housing varies between groups. Some groups, such as the Maasai and Pokot, retain a nomadic lifestyle whereby houses can be dismantled and packed away when the inhabitants leave in search of better pastures for their livestock. However, this has shifted to only males moving with the herds. For other groups, extended families live in small compounds with fixed housing. The percentage of the population living in rural areas has been gradually decreasing with more Kenyans moving to cities in search of employment and education opportunities.
In the cities of Kenya, housing varies depending on one's socioeconomic status. For example, those in the upper class have large, secure complexes while those in the middle to upper class reside in modern apartment blocks. People of lower socioeconomic standing often live in shanty towns located within or on the outskirts of Kenya's cities.
It is important to bear in mind that the experiences and lifestyles of those in Nairobi or other urban areas differ considerably from that of people residing in rural parts of the country. Those in rural areas and villages tend to practise a more traditional Kenyan lifestyle. Conversely, people in urban areas reflect the changing face of Kenya and the influences of globalisation and . In Kenya’s capital of Nairobi, it is common to see the modern and traditional elements of Kenyan culture blended together.
Ethnic Groups and Languages
Kenya has incredible diversity. More than half of the country's groups have Bantu origins. The largest group in Kenya is the Kikuyu people (22%). Other major groups include the Luhya (14%), Luo (13%), Kalenjin (12%), Kamba (11%), Kisii (6%) and Meru (6%). Each tribe is further divided into or sub-tribes, sometimes understood as a family. For example, there are approximately 18 in the Luhya tribe. Kenyans tend to associate certain social qualities with different groups. Keep in mind that some of these associations may be based on outdated or inaccurate stereotypes. For instance, the Luo are often seen as being proud of their language and culture. Similar distinctions of social characteristics are made within groups as well. For example, among the Kikuyu people, those living in Nyeri are commonly seen as industrious or entrepreneurs.
It is important to understand that categories in Kenya are complex and sometimes overlapping. Previously, there were strong tensions between groups, partly due to the legacy of rule by the British. During this time, different were confined to specific geographic areas, and some groups were prioritised above others. This was on the basis of whether the community collaborated or rebelled against rule. Today, the stratification between has diminished and Kenyans generally coexist peacefully. group and distinctions were considered very important in past generations. Indeed, was often the basis for selecting a spouse and, at times, one’s friends. However, younger generations of Kenyans tend to pay less attention to distinctions.
The fact that the country is host to large refugee populations from surrounding countries also contributes to Kenya’s diversity. As of January 2018, UNHCR estimates there are 486,460 refugees and asylum seekers residing in Kenya (most of which are Somalian and South Sudanese).1 There is also a presence of non-African in Kenya. For example, ‘Wazungu’ (directly translates as ‘White Person’) refers to the white population in Kenya. The Wazungu are widely associated with British settlers. Today, the dwindling Wazungu is a mix of third-generation European-Kenyans, business persons and members of international aid organisations. There are also some Asian communities in the country, with many being descendants of indentured labourers from India during the British era. Both the Wazungu and Asian groups make up approximately 1% of the population.
Personal and National Identity
Many Kenyans identify with their tribe or group. Many Kenyans follow traditions that relate to their , from the name they give their children to the way they serve their food. People are often especially proud of their native language as it tends to be correlated with their identity. There are occasional tensions between groups. Such tensions tend to flare up during election season in Kenya, such as the 2007 election and the recent 2017 general election. This is in part due to historical circumstances where specific groups, such as the Kikuyu, were more represented in the independence movement as well as more favoured by the political elite. Thus, some groups dominate the political sphere.
Nevertheless, there is still a strong sense of national identity. Many are proud of their cultural heritage, accomplishments and the country’s successful efforts to achieve independence and economic growth. Moreover, overt expressions of tribalism are becoming more taboo in the country.
The language of Swahili (also known as ‘Kiswahili’) has also helped shape a common national identity that transcends boundaries. Almost all Kenyans can speak Swahili, which was selected as the national language of Kenya after independence partly due to its linguistic commonality with other Bantu-based languages in the country. English is also an official language and is mainly used for business, education and official purposes. Hence, many Kenyans also speak English at a high proficiency. Along with Swahili and English, each group speaks its language as a native tongue. Most languages in Kenya fall into one of two categories: Bantu or Nilotic. Swahili is commonly used when Kenyans communicate to other Kenyans from a different group.
Society and Social Structure
Kenya has quite a hierarchical society. This is noticeable in the pronounced differences in wealth. Land ownership is a valued indicator of one’s socioeconomic status. In rural parts of Kenya, most people have access to small plots of cultivable land known as ‘shambas’. These plots are gradually diminishing in size as each generation divides the land among typically the adult sons. Today, it is common for men to purchase land in addition to their inheritance. For some groups, the ownership of animals such as cattle, goats and sheep is an important indicator of wealth.
Education is also highly valued and respected with regard to one's socioeconomic status. In Kenya, many view education as a way to transcend their socioeconomic status as well as a way to demonstrate one's abilities. Many Kenyans work in a sector known as the ‘Jua Kali' (‘hot sun') sector. This sector primarily refers to trades jobs in areas such as car repair, woodwork, welding and construction. It also includes less physically laborious trades such as handicrafts and plant nurseries. The Jua Kali sector enables people to generate income along with providing social support networks for women engaging in the sector.
Collectivism and Interactions
Kenya is highly , meaning people are highly interdependent on their social and family circles. Individuals often feel a sense of responsibility to those around them and are expected to be willing to sacrifice their interests for the group. In Kenya, the ‘group' is often defined as one's family. An individual is usually expected to assist less-fortunate fellow family members, often through financial assistance. For example, someone with adequate finances may be expected to help pay their less-fortunate sibling's children's school fees. Failing to uphold ties with one's family is considered rebellious. This attitude is also evident among friends. Underlying friendship is the notion of reciprocity and willingness to share with one another. When a friend asks for a favour or assistance, one is expected to provide it.
Kenyans generally do not find the idea of living alone very desirable, and having a high level of privacy is not highly valued. A tradition in some groups known as ‘baraza’ (a community meeting in which everyone is invited to speak) reflects the communal nature of Kenya’s society. On the local level, Kenyans deeply respect one’s right to speak and will be patient in allowing someone to express themselves. In turn, talking over someone, cutting in or otherwise depriving someone the opportunity to speak is frowned upon. Kenyans also tend to be warm and friendly when interacting with others. Indeed, it is common to hear laughter during conversations.
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