Japanese Culture


The primary author of this profile was Chara Scroope (2021).


  • Advameg. (n.d.). Japan. Countries and their Cultures. Retrieved from https://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Japan.html
  • Australian Embassy Tokyo. (2021a). Family Law - Child Custody in Japan. Retrieved from https://japan.embassy.gov.au/tkyo/familylaw.html
  • Australian Embassy Tokyo. (2021b). Australia and Japan’s 107 sister-city/sister-state relationships. Retrieved from https://japan.embassy.gov.au/tkyo/sistercities.html
  • Australian Trade and Investment Commission. (2021). Export Markets - Japan: Doing Business. Retrieved from https://www.austrade.gov.au/australian/export/export-markets/countries/japan/doing-business
  • Borup, J. (2012). Contemporary Buddhist Priests and Clergy. In I. Prohl & J. K. Nelson (eds.) Handbook of Contemporary Japanese Religions. Leiden: Brill. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/22080291/CONTEMPORARY_BUDDHIST_PRIESTS_AND_CLERGY
  • Brown, J., & Brown, J. (2006). China, Japan and Korea: Culture and Customs. North Charleston: BookSurge. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/China_Japan_Korea/3r-3YH3t45cC
  • Brown, L. K. (2017). Ethnic Diversity and the Origins of the Japanese. Japan: Places, Images, Times, & Transformations. Retrieved from https://www.japanpitt.pitt.edu/essays-and-articles/history/ethnic-diversity-and-origins-japanese
  • Bullock, B. (2020a). Etiquette. Retrieved from https://www.sljfaq.org/afaq/etiquette.html
  • Bullock, B. (2020b). Names. Retrieved from https://www.sljfaq.org/afaq/names.html
  • Center for Okinawan Studies. (2010). Okinawan Facts. University of Hawai’i. Retrieved from http://manoa.hawaii.edu/okinawa/wordpress/?page_id=78#majorobservances/
  • Central Intelligence Agency. (2020). Japan. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/japan/#geography
  • Connell, J. (1993). Kitanai, Kitsui and Kiken: The Rise of Labour Migration to Japan. Australia: Economic & Regional Restructuring Research Unit, University of Sydney.
  • Culture Crossing Guide. (2017). Japan. Retrieved from http://guide.culturecrossing.net/basics_business_student.php?id=104
  • Deal, W. E., & Ruppert, B. (2015). A Cultural History of Japanese Buddhism. London: Wiley Blackwell.
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2021a). Australia-Japan bilateral relationship. Retrieved from https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/japan/Pages/australia-japan-bilateral-relationship
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2021b). Japan country brief. Retrieved from https://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/japan/Pages/japan-country-brief
  • Department of Home Affairs. (2018). Japan-born: Community Information Summary. Retrieved from https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/mca/files/2016-cis-japan.PDF
  • Dolan, R. E., & Worden, R. L. (1994). Japan: A country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/item/91029874/
  • Fukusawa, M. (2015). Immigration—Missing Link in Japanese History: Why Are There So Many Okinawan Immigrants? – Part 1. Retrieved from http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2015/8/18/okinawan-1/
  • Giftypedia. (2017). Japan Gift Giving Customs. Retrieved from http://www.giftypedia.com/Japan_Gift_Giving_Customs
  • Global Affairs Canada. (2020). Cultural Information - Japan. Retrieved from https://www.international.gc.ca/global-affairs-affaires-mondiales/services/cfsi-icse/cultural-insights-apercu-culturelles/japan-japon.aspx?lang=eng#cn-1
  • Hirata, K. (2008). Who Shapes the National Security Debate? Divergent Interpretations of Japan's Security Role. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 35(3), 123-151. https://doi.org/10.3200/AAFS.35.3.123-151
  • Harai, N. (2020). Shintō. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Shinto
  • Hashimoto, A. (2017). War Memory in Japan. Japan: Places, Images, Times, & Transformations. Retrieved from https://www.japanpitt.pitt.edu/essays-and-articles/society/war-memory-japan
  • Haugh, M. (2005). “What does ‘face’ mean to the Japanese? Understanding the import of ‘face’ in Japanese business interactions” in F. Bargiela-Chiappini & M. Gotti (eds.) Asian Business Discourse(s). Bern: Peter Lang. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/29451558_What_Does_'Face'_Mean_to_the_Japanese_Understanding_the_Import_of_'Face'_in_Japanese_Business_Interactions
  • Hein, L., & Selden, M. (2003). Culture, Power and Identity in Contemporary Okinawa. In L. Hein & M. Selden (eds.) Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/Islands_of_Discontent/aY4yKIek90cC
  • Hofstede Insights. (2020). Japan. Retrieved from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country/japan/
  • Hyde, S. (2015). Japan’s way of remembering World War II still infuriates its neighbours. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/japans-way-of-remembering-world-war-ii-still-infuriates-its-neighbours-45663
  • International Monetary Fund. (2021). World Economic Outlook Database. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/April/download-entire-database
  • Ishikida, M. (2005). Toward Peace: War Responsibility, Postwar Compensation, and Peace Movements and Education in Japan. New York: iUniverse. 
  • Japan Book Publishers Association. (2017). An Introduction to Publishing in Japan 2017-2018. Tokyo: Japan Book Publishers Association. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20190203154323/http://jbpa.or.jp/en/pdf/pdf01.pdf
  • Japan Guide. (2020). Public holidays and annual events in Japan. Retrieved from https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2062.html
  • JR Pass. (2019). A guide to Japanese etiquette. Retrieved from https://www.jrpass.com/blog/a-guide-to-japanese-etiquette
  • JapanesePod101. (2019). Japanese hand gestures and body language. Retrieved from https://www.japanesepod101.com/blog/2019/08/16/japanese-body-gestures/
  • Keown, D. (ed.). (2004). A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kobayakawa, A. (2020). Japan’s Modernization and Discrimination: What are Buraku and Burakumin? Critical Sociology, 47(1), 111-132. https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920520915493
  • Kopp, R. (2020). Defining Nemawashi. Retrieved from https://japanintercultural.com/free-resources/articles/defining-nemawashi/
  • Lee, K. R., & Lew, Y. I. (2020). Korea: Korea Under Japanese Rule. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Korea/Korea-under-Japanese-rule
  • Masai, Y., Latz, G., & Hijino, S. (2020). Japan: Daily life and social customs. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Japan/Daily-life-and-social-customs
  • McCurry, J. (2015). Same-sex couple receives Japan's first 'partnership' certificate. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/05/same-sex-couples-japan-partnership-certificates
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2018a). Japan: Ainu. Retrieved from https://minorityrights.org/minorities/ainu/
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2018b). Japan: Burakumin (Buraku people). Retrieved from https://minorityrights.org/minorities/burakumin-buraku-people/
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2018c). Japan: Koreans. Retrieved from https://minorityrights.org/minorities/koreans/
  • Minority Rights Group International. (2018d). Japan: Ryukyuans (Okinawans). Retrieved from https://minorityrights.org/minorities/ryukyuans-okinawans/
  • Ministry of Justice. (2008). The Nationality Law. Retrieved from http://www.moj.go.jp/ENGLISH/information/tnl-01.html
  • Moseley, C. (ed.). (2010). UNESCO Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. UNESCO Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/languages-atlas/index.php
  • Museum Victoria Australia. (n.d.). Immigration History from Japan to Victoria. Retrieved from https://origins.museumsvictoria.com.au/countries/japan/
  • Nippon Hoso Kyokai [NHK]. (2018). How the religious consciousness and behaviour of Japanese people has changed. [In Japanese]. Retrieved from https://www.nhk.or.jp/bunken/research/yoron/pdf/20190401_7.pdf
  • OECD. (2019a). Better Life Index: Japan. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/japan/
  • OECD. (2019b). Society at a Glance 2019: OECD Social Indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/soc_glance-2019-en
  • OECD. (2019c). Under pressure: The squeezed middle-class. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/japan/Middle-class-2019-Japan.pdf
  • OECD. (2021). Education GPS. Retrieved from https://gpseducation.oecd.org/
  • Osawa, M., & Kingston, J. (2015). “Risk and Consequences: The Changing Japanese Employment Paradigm” in A. Allison & F. Baldwin (eds.) Japan: The Precarious Future. New York: New York University Press.
  • Pew Research Center. (2015). Americans, Japanese: Mutual Respect 70 Years After the End of WWII. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2015/04/07/americans-japanese-mutual-respect-70-years-after-the-end-of-wwii/
  • ProQuest. (2017). Culture Gram: Japan. Michigan: ProQuest.
  • Ray, M. (2017). Pacific War. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pacific-War
  • Ray, M. (2020). Battle of Okinawa. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Battle-of-Okinawa
  • Reader, I. (2006). “Japanese New Religious Movements” in M. Juergensmeyer (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rots, A. P. (2017). Shinto, Nature and Ideology in Contemporary Japan: Making Sacred Forests. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Sawa, Y. (2019). Digital New Report: Japan. Retrieved from https://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2019/japan-2019/
  • Semuels, A. (2017). Japan is no place for single mothers. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2017/09/japan-is-no-place-for-single-mothers/538743/
  • Shimazomo, S. (2006). “Traditional Japanese Religious Society” in M. Juergensmeyer (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Statistics Bureau of Japan. (2020). Statistical Handbook of Japan 2020. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved from http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/handbook/pdf/2020all.pdf
  • Statistics Bureau of Japan. (2021). Japan Statistical Yearbook 2021: Chapter 26. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Retrieved from http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/nenkan/70nenkan/1431-26.html
  • Stokes, B., & Devlin, K. (2018). Countries’ views of Japan, Abe; Japanese views of China. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2018/11/12/countries-views-of-japan-abe-japanese-views-of-china/
  • Sugimoto, Y. (2021). An Introduction to Japanese Society (5th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Tamura, T. (2003). “The Status and Role of Ethnic Koreans in the Japanese Economy” in C. F. Bergsten & I. Choi (eds.) The Korean Diaspora in the World Economy. Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics. Retrieved from https://www.piie.com/publications/chapters_preview/365/5iie3586.pdf
  • The Constitution of Japan. (1947). Retrieved from https://japan.kantei.go.jp/constitution_and_government_of_japan/constitution_e.html
  • The Constitution of the Empire of Japan. (1889). Retrieved from https://history.hanover.edu/texts/1889con.html
  • Transparency International. (2020). Corruption Perception Index. Retrieved from https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2020/index/nzl
  • Tricycle. (2019). What is the difference between a Zen monk, nun, and priest?. Retrieved from https://tricycle.org/beginners/buddhism/difference-between-zen-monk-nun-and-priest/
  • Umeda, S. (2019). Japan: New Ainu Law Becomes Effective. Library of Congress, Global Legal Monitor. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/japan-new-ainu-law-becomes-effective/
  • Watanabe, A., Masai, Y., & Latz, G. (2020). Japan: Land. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Japan#ref23230
  • World Bank. (2016). Japan. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/country/japan

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