Ethiopian Culture

Other Considerations

  • Ethiopia has its own calendar that is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar used in Western countries. The Ethiopian Year starts on the 11th of September.
  • Be aware that time is counted differently in Ethiopia. The day technically starts at dawn and goes to dusk, and the night starts at dusk and goes to dawn. Therefore, instead of the clock striking 1am in the middle of the night, 1am occurs at sunrise (technically 7am in East Africa Time).
  • Most Muslim Ethiopian women wear a long loose dress called an ‘abaya’ that covers their body from head to ankle. They may also wear a hijab (headscarf) that covers their hair. Some may wear a niqab (face veil) that covers their face as well.
  • Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a customary practice in some regions of Ethiopia that usually occurs after a girl’s birth. While Ethiopian migrant women and girls are less likely to undergo the procedure in Australia (where it is illegal), they may be flown back to Ethiopia by their families to have it performed. 
  • Consider that Ethiopians’ political views, even voiced in another country, can have consequences. The Ethiopian government authorities have significant intelligence-gathering capabilities and have been known to detect those who openly criticise the government while overseas.1 This can have an impact on any remaining family an individual may have in Ethiopia or mean action will be taken upon them if they return. Therefore, be aware that an Ethiopian may not always feel at liberty to speak their mind on certain topics.
  • It is common to encounter quite strong positions on issues relating to religious morality and social conservatism, particularly homosexuality. Homosexual relations are illegal and strongly opposed by 97% of the population.2
  • Older versions of the country's flag are prohibited in Ethiopia, as well as the use of the flag without its emblem. Be aware that some people might take offence to misuse of the flag.


Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2017

Pew Research Forum, 2007

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Ethiopia
  • Population
    105,350,020
    [July 2017 est.]
  • Language
    Oromo (33.8%)
    Amharic (29.3%)
    Somali (6.2%)
    Tigrinya (5.9%)
    Sidamo (4.0%)
    Wolaytta (2.2%)
    Gurage (2.0%)
    Afar (1.7%)
    Hadiyya (1.7%)
    Other (13.2) - including over 70 other individual languages.
    [Census, 2007]
  • Religion
    Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity (43.5%)
    Islam (33.9%)
    Protestant Christianity (18.5%)
    Traditional/Animist Religions (2.7%)
    Catholic Christianity (0.7%)
    Other (0.6%)
    [Census, 2007]
  • Ethnicity
    Oromo (34.4%)
    Amhara (26.9%)
    Somali (6.2%)
    Tigrinya (6.1%)
    Sidama (4.0%)
    Gurage (2.5%)
    Welaita (2.3%)
    Hadiya (1.7%)
    Afar (1.7%)
    Other (14.1%) - including at least 70 other ethnic groups.
    [Census, 2007]
  • Cultural Dimensions
    70
    20
    65
    55
    N.A.
    N.A.
  • Australians with Ethiopian Ancestry
    13,715 [2016 census]
Ethiopians in Australia
  • Population
    11,792
    [2016 census]
    This figure refers to the number of Australian residents that were born in Ethiopia.
  • Average Age
    36
    [Census 2016]
  • Gender
    Male (47.7%)
    Female (52.3%)
    [Census 2016]
  • Religion
    Oriental Orthodox Christianity (25.6%)
    Islam (24.4%)
    Christianity [not defined] (12.7%)
    Eastern Orthodox Christianity (9.8%)
    Other Religion (19.4%)
    No Religion (4.0%)
    [Census 2016]
  • Ancestry
    Ethiopian (62.9%)
    Oromo (8.4%)
    African [so described] (7.1%)
    Eritrean (3.3%)
    Other Ancestry (18.3%)
    [Census 2016]
  • Language Spoken at Home
    Amharic (43.0%)
    Oromo (16.8%)
    Tigrinya (11.3%)
    English (11.2%)
    Other Languages (16.4%)
    Of those who speak a language other than English at home, 82.9% speak English fluently.
    [Census 2016]
  • Diaspora
    Victoria (54.0%)
    Western Australia (13.7%)
    Queensland (10.7%)
    New South Wales (10.7%)
    Other (10.9%)
    [Census 2016]
  • Arrival to Australia
    Prior to 2007 (48.9%)
    2007 - 2011 (24.0%)
    2011 - 2016 (23.4%)
    [Census 2016]
Country https://dtbhzdanf36fd.cloudfront.net/countries/149/et.svg Flag Country Ethiopia